March 2016

CHINA AND THE MIDDLE EAST: VENTURING INTO THE MAELSTROM (Part 4)

[cxxx] Ben Blanchard, Chinese admiral visits Iran, wants closer defense cooperation, Reuters, 14 October 2015, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-iran-idUSKCN0S907Q20151015
[cxxxi] David P. Goldman, Saudi Arabia stews in policy hell: Spengler, Asia Times, 3 January 2016, http://atimes.com/2016/01/saudi-arabia-in-policy-hell/
[cxxxii] China Daily, Saudis face dilemma over Islamic militancy, 2 February 2002, http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P2-8785765.html
[cxxxiii] Arab News, Uighurs, 24 March 2002
[cxxxiv] Ibid. Harrison
[cxxxv] Bloomberg News, Russia Races Past Saudi Arabia in Tussle for Chinese Oil Market, 21 October 2015, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-10-21/russia-races-past-saudi-arabia-in-tussle-for-chinese-oil-market
[cxxxvi] Benoit Faucon Iran Cancels $2.5 Billion Contract with Chinese Oil Company, The Wall Street Journal, 29 April 2014, http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052702303939404579531111999051656
[cxxxvii] Charles Clover, Heba Saleh, Najmeh Bozorgmehr and Simeon Kerr, Xi faces diplomatic test on first Middle East visit, Financial Times, 18 January 2016, http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/6ce8bb08-bdbf-11e5-846f-79b0e3d20eaf.html?ftcamp=published_links%2Frss%2Fworld_asia-pacific_china%2Ffeed%2F%2Fproduct#axzz3xcDnbvIw
[cxxxviii] Agence France Press, First ‘Silk Road’ train arrives in Tehran from China, 16 February 2016, https://news.yahoo.com/first-silk-road-train-arrives-tehran-china-134703954.html?soc_src=mail&soc_trk=ma
[cxxxix] Ibid. Pan Guang
[cxl] Ibid. Garver, pp. 156-158
[cxli] Tian Shaohui, Xi’s fruitful Middle East tour highlights China’s commitment to building new type of int’l relations, Xinhua, 24 January 2016, http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2016-01/24/c_135040319.htm
[cxlii] Xi Jingping, Work Together for a Bright Future of China-Arab Relations, China Daily, 22 January 2016, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/world/2016xivisitmiddleeast/2016-01/22/content_23191229.htm
[cxliii] Shannon Tiezzi (6 June 2014). In South Sudan Conflict, China Tests Its Mediation Skills, The Diplomat, http://thediplomat.com/2014/06/in-south-sudan-conflict-china-tests-its-mediation-skills/
[cxliv] Xinhua, China announces new proposal on Syria, 31 October 2012, http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/china/2012-10/31/c_131942913.htm
[cxlv] Xinhua (6 May 2013). Chinese President makes four-point proposal for settlement of Palestinian questionhttp://news.xinhuanet.com/english/china/2013-05/06/c_132363061.htm
[cxlvi] Amrutha Gayrathi, China Signals Greater Role in Global Affairs but Sticks to Principle of Mutual Non-Interference, Associated Press, 11 September 2012, http://www.ibtimes.com/china-signals-greater-role-global-affairs-sticks-principle-mutual-non-interference-866668
[cxlvii] Ibid. Fardella
[cxlviii] Andrew Small (26 March 2015). Chinese Foreign Policy Comes of Age, The New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/27/opinion/chinese-foreign-policy-comes-of-age.html?_r=2
[cxlix] Permanent mission of China to the UN at Geneva(Undated). The 10th Conference of Chinese diplomatic envoys stationed abroad held in Beijing, http://www.china-un.ch/eng/xwdt/t156047.htm
[cl] Pan Guang, Keynote Speech at International Conference on China in the Middle East, Indiana University and Peking University, Beijing, 17-18 March 2015
[cli] Nodirbek Soliev, Growing Uighur Militancy: Challenges for China, RSIS Commentary, 4 February 2016, http://www.rsis.edu.sg/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/CO16027.pdf
[clii] Ibid. Soliev
[cliii] Ibid. Pan Guang
[cliv] Edward Wong, Taliban and Afghan Peace Officials Have Secret Talks in China, The New York Times, 26 May 2015, www.nytimes.com/world/taliban-and-afghan-peace-officials-have-secret-talks-in-china.html
[clv] Li Jing, China stands by Afghanistan, China daily, 28 September 2015, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/world/2015xivisitus/2015-09/28/content_22000357.htm
[clvi] Foreign Ministry of the People’s Republic of China, Foreign Minister Wang Yi arrived in Kabul to begin a visit to Afghanistan, 22 February 2014, http://www.gov.cn/gzdt/2014-02/22/content_2619024.htm
[clvii] Ibid. Harrison
[clviii] Ahmed Rashid, Why Pakistan is Sinking, The New York Review of Books, 2 April 2015,
[clix] Ibid. Small

[clx] Iftekhar Ahmed Chowdhury, Pakistan in China’s Eyes: Pawn, Pivot or a Pointer to its World View, Institute of South Asian Studies, 2015, http://www.isas.nus.edu.sg/Attachments/PublisherAttachment/ISAS_Special_Report_No._23_-_Pakistan_in_China’s_Eyes_06052015003608.pdf
[clxi] Ibid. Fardelli
[clxii] Qiu Yongzheng Turkey’s ambiguous policies help terrorists join IS jihadist group: analyst, Global Times, 15 December 2014, http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/896765.shtml
[clxv] Jonathan Kaiman, China arrests 10 Turkish nationals on suspicion of aiding terror suspects, The Guardian, 14 January 2015, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jan/14/china-arrests-10-turkish-nationals-on-suspicion-of-aiding-terror-suspects
[clxvi] The Associated Press, China says Muslim Uighurs have joined ISIS, Haaretz, 11 March 2015, http://www.haaretz.com/news/world/1.646317
[clxvii] Ibid. Qiu Yongzheng
[clxix] Ibid. Heavy
[clxx] Aaron Y. Zelin, New nashīd from The Islamic State: ‘Mujāhid,’ Jihadology, 2 December 2015, http://jihadology.net/2015/12/06/new-nashid-from-the-islamic-state-mujahid/
[clxxi] Stephen Chen, ‘Islamic State hackers’ attack top tier Chinese university’s website urging holy war, South China Morning Post, 18 January 2016, http://www.scmp.com/news/china/policies-politics/article/1902268/islamic-state-hackers-attack-top-tier-chinese
[clxxii] Lin Meilian, Xinjiang Terrorists Finding Training, Support in Syria, Turkey, Global Times, 1 July 2013, https://services.globaltimes.cn/epaper/2013-07-02/2F27552.htm
[clxxiii] http://www.guancha.cn/military-affairs/2015_04_23_317042.shtml / John Hall. 2015. Meet the Peshmerga’s International Brigade: From IT workers to ex-soldiers, the men from the West teaming up with Kurdish forces to fight ISIS, The Daily Mail, April 21, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3049019/Peshmerga-s-foreign-legion-fighting-alongside-defeat-ISIS-workers-ex-soldiers-brave-men-world-teaming-Kurdish-forces.html
[clxxiv] Information Office of State Council, “East Turkistan” Terrorist Forces Cannot Get Away with Impunity, 21 January 2002, http://www.china.org.cn/english/2002/Jan/25582.htm
[clxxv] Ibid. Guancha / John Hall
[clxxvi] Ibid Guancha / John Hall
[clxxvii] Yitzhak Shichor, Ethno-Diplomacy: The Uyghur Hitch in Sino-Turkish Relations, Policy Studies, No. 53, East-West Center, 2009, http://www.eastwestcenter.org/fileadmin/stored/pdfs/ps053.pdf
[clxxviii] Hodong Kim, Holy War in China: The Muslim Rebellion and State in Chinese Central Asia, 1864-1877, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2004, Kindle edition
[clxxix] Eastern Turkestan Information Bulletin, Istanbul Names Park for Isa Yusuf Alptekin, Vol. 5 No. 4 (August 1995), http://caccp.freedomsherald.org/et/etib/etib5_4.html#4
[clxxx] Ibid. Shichor
[clxxxi] Michael Clarke, Uyghur Militants in Syria: The Turkish Connection, The Jamestown Foundation, Terrorism Monitor, Vol.14:3, 4 February 2016, http://www.jamestown.org/single/?tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=45067&tx_ttnews%5BbackPid%5D=7&cHash=200344abdd89976c56dee55481597515
[clxxxii] Selcuk Colakoglu, Dynamics of Sino–Turkish Relations: A Turkish Perspective, East Asia, Vol. 32:1, p 7-23
[clxxxiii] China Daily, Zhu in Turkey, Vows to Fight Terrorism, 17 April 2002, http://www.china.org.cn/english/2002/Apr/30829.htm
[clxxxiv] Ibid. Shichor
[clxxxv] Lucy Hornby and Piotr Zalewski, China accuses Turkey of aiding Uighurs, Financial Times 12 July 2015, http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/93607210-285c-11e5-8613-e7aedbb7bdb7.html
[clxxxvi] Burhan Dogus Ayparlar, Turkish PM Erdogan: ‘Incidents at Xinjiang are almost Genocide,’ Journal of Turkish Weekly, 11 July 2009, http://www.turkishweekly.net/2009/07/11/news/turkish-pm-erdogan-incidents-at-xinjiang-are-almost-genocide/
[clxxxviii] Ben Blanchard, China passes controversial counter-terrorism law, Reuters, 28 December 2015, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-security-idUSKBN0UA07220151228
[clxxxix] Cui Jia, New anti-terror security guidelines made public, China Daily USA, 17 December 2015, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/m/xinjiang/urumqi_toutunhe/2015-12/17/content_22744319.htm
[cxc] Ibid. Pan Guang
[cxci] China Radio International English, Satellite Spots Cross-border Tunnels, 25 August 2014, http://english.cri.cn/12394/2014/08/25/2281s841656.htm
[cxcii] Eli Jacobs, China’s Underground “Great Wall”: A Success for Nuclear Primacy, Center for International and Strategic Studies, 25 October 2011, https://csis.org/blog/chinas-underground-great-wall-success-nuclear-primacy
[cxciii] Ibid. Ma Xiaolin
[cxciv] Zachary Keck, China Doubles Down on Iraqi Oil Gamble, The Diplomat, 18 October 2013, http://thediplomat.com/2013/10/china-doubles-down-on-iraqi-oil-gamble / Bree Feng and Edward Wong. China Keeps a Close Eye on Oil Interests in Iraq, The New York Times, 17 June 2014, http://sinosphere.blogs.nytimes.com/china-keeps-a-close-eye-on-oil-interests-in-iraq/?_r=0
[cxcv] Pu Zhendong, Rise of ISIS surpasses other Middle East chaos, China Daily USA, 4 September 2014, http://usa.chinadaily.com.cn/epaper/2014-09/04/content_18546632.htm
[cxcvi] Abu Bakr Al-Husayni Al-Baghdadi (4 July 2014). A Message to the Mujahidin and the Ummah in the Month of Ramadan, Al Hayat Media Center, https://ia902501.us.archive.org/2/items/hym3_22aw/english.pdf
[cxcvii] Don Mackay, ISIS Militants in Iraq Proclaim New Islamic State and Pose Threat to ‘All Countries, Mirror, 30 June 2014, http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/world-news/isis-militants-iraq-proclaim-new-3790221 / https://twitter.com/Third_Position
[cxcix] Christina Y. Lin, ISIS Caliphate Meets China’s Silk Road Economic Belt, IDC Herzliya Rubin Center, 15 February 2015, http://www.rubincenter.org/2015/02/isis-caliphate-meets-chinas-silk-road-economic-belt/
[cc] Ucan, China Losing Battle Against Extremist Islamic Teachings, Says Muslim Official, Eurasia Review, 30 March 2015, http://www.eurasiareview.com/30032015-china-losing-battle-against-extremist-islamic-teachings-says-muslim-official/
[cci] Abdul-Reda Assiri, Kuwait’s Dinar Diplomacy: The Role of Donor-Mediator, Journal of South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 14:3, p.24-32
[ccii] Ilham Tohti, Present-Day Ethnic Problems in Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region: Overview and Recommendations, China Change, 22 April 2015, http://chinachange.org/2015/04/22/present-day-ethnic-problems-in-xinjiang-uighur-autonomous-region-overview-and-recommendations-1/
[cciii] Stratfor, China’s Uighur Militants Make a Strategic Shift, 2 March 2014, www.stratfor.com
[cciv] Zhang Xiaodong, China’s Interests in the Middle East: Present and Future, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, 30 April 2009, http://iwaas.cass.cn/kycg/hjcg/2009-04-30/202.shtml
[ccv] Ibid. Dorsey
[ccvi] Jiang Xudong, China’s Role, Operation Progress and Strength Limitation since Iraq Reconstruction: An Analysis Based on the Swot Model, International Conference on China in the Middle East, Indiana University and Peking University, Beijing, 17-18 March 2015

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